At least, not directly. The most common negative effect on the brain that alcohol can have is damaging the dendrites of the brain cells. These are the ends of the brain cells that are used to transmit information from cell to cell. This will temporarily alter how your brain works, but the damage is reversible, and the brain cells themselves aren’t damaged at all.
However, if you are an alcoholic, the alcohol in your system may be affecting your body’s ability to absorb thiamine. This can lead to a thiamine (aka vitamin B1) deficiency, which causes a neurological disorder called Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. This actually does result in a loss of brain cells, and can lead to memory and muscle coordination problems, amnesia, confusion, and paralysis of the eyes.
Learn more from this list of Top 10 Brain Myths.
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